Jan 18, 2018

One Possible Outlook for 2018

By Gene Balas

The U.S. economy – and indeed, that of the world as a whole – finished 2017 on strong footing. In December, we learned that unemployment was at a multi-year low, and consumer spending from retail stores to automotive dealerships to online venues surged in November. And business investment in equipment increased at a solid clip. These are but a few examples of the sturdy macroeconomic foundation upon which 2018 can progress.

What can we expect?

Looking ahead, what might we expect? What the Administration hopes is that the tax cut package just passed by Congress will bolster companies’ finances, enhancing their cash flow to afford them additional funds to deploy on hiring more, investing more, or both. We discuss these, and a number of other issues, in our short paper on our Outlook for 2018.

However, there really is no way to model human behavior and psychology. Making more funds available to a company to invest or hire is one thing; whether they intend to use those funds in that manner remains to be seen. While not limited to the following, we’ve identified three main components to a possible outcome:

  • Does the tax cut proceeds give companies leeway to cut prices to gain market share?
  • Will companies use this “cushion” of a tax cut to pay their workers more without significantly raising prices, or invest in new technologies and equipment?
  • Or will companies divert some (or all) of their tax savings into profits to either retain or pay out to shareholders?

In reality, it may be some combination of all three, particularly because low unemployment may require that companies raise wages to enable them to hire and expand. After all, in an alternate scenario – that being without a tax cut – companies may simply not hire at all, if they could not raise prices enough to pay whatever wage rate would be required for the additional worker on the margin. Thus, in that alternate situation, low unemployment could potentially limit expansion, not fuel more inflation.

Some of the tax cut will be “competed away” through lower prices…

The likely outcome entails several components, though the actual mix of these scenarios depends on each company and its competitive landscape. One component of this outcome is based on economic theory that says that “excess” profits – those profits greater than what shareholders require when investing in a company – are competed away. That means that, given more available cash flow – and a desire to acquire more customers and a greater market share – companies may simply lower their prices. Their competitors then follow suit, and prices – and profits – may return toward their previous equilibrium.

…A portion of the tax cut could go to employees or be invested in capital…

If it is profitable to do so, a company may pay its workers more in the second component of this scenario, noting anecdotal evidence of a shortage of labor being a growing problem for employers. That would benefit at least some employees. The key phrase, however, is, “if it is profitable to do so.” Companies will only cut prices and/or pay workers more if it maximizes profits, so not all of the tax cut will benefit customers or workers.

It may be profitable, however, for a business to invest in equipment or technology that extracts more revenues from its existing employees. This can immediately benefit the economy through purchases of machines, computers or structures, especially given tax incentives to do so. It can also benefit the economy in the long run if it more-permanently increases productivity. And with each worker producing more with the same hour of labor, employers may be able to offer their employees higher wages at the same time profits grow.

….Or companies could simply return the proceeds to shareholders

A third possible component of this scenario is that some of the tax cut proceeds could be returned to shareholders, in the form of dividends, share repurchases, and debt reduction. Cynical observers may opine that much of the tax cut will flow to the owners of capital more than labor. If companies cannot find profitable opportunities to expand their business by reducing prices and/or hiring and investing more, shareholders would more directly (and immediately) receive the benefits of the tax cut. But many companies have a longer-term view than some investors might think.

The actual outcome will be hard to predict

What actually happens with the tax-cut proceeds is difficult to predict. Likely, some combination of each of these three outcomes will occur. However, as the year progresses, companies may announce their intentions after thoughtful consideration and securities analysts will update their models accordingly.

Sign Up Now

In the end, we’ll leave you with the cliffhanger, the question on every investor’s mind is: how much do share prices already reflect these considerations, and what is the upside from here? The answer is that it depends on which analyst you ask and the assumptions they use when attempting to forecast the effects of the tax cuts. As analysts update their models with the latest comment or poll, the performance of individual stocks may diverge more notably from that of the overall market.

The upshot is that the markets may be focused on an outcome that may not occur in exactly the way some might expect – after all, complicated feedback loops often inherently have unintended consequences.

Disclosure: Investing involves risk, including possible loss of principal, and investors should carefully consider their own investment objectives and never rely on any single chart, graph or marketing piece to make decisions. The information contained in this piece is intended for information only, is not a recommendation to buy or sell any securities, and should not be considered investment advice. Please contact your financial adviser with questions about your specific needs and circumstances. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and not necessarily United Capital Financial Advisers, LLC. The information and opinions expressed herein are obtained from sources believed to be reliable, however their accuracy and completeness cannot be guaranteed. All data are driven from publicly available information and has not been independently verified by United Capital. Opinions expressed are current as of the date of this publication and are subject to change. Certain statements contained within are forward-looking statements including, but not limited to, predictions or indications of future events, trends, plans or objectives. Undue reliance should not be placed on such statements because, by their nature, they are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties. Indices are unmanaged, do not consider the effect of transaction costs or fees, do not represent an actual account and cannot be invested to directly. International investing entails special risk considerations, including currency fluctuations, lower liquidity, economic and political risks, and different accounting methodologies. 

© 2018 United Capital Financial Advisers, LLC. All Rights Reserved


Gene Balas

Gene Balas

United Capital Financial Advisers, LLC d/b/a Goldman Sachs Personal Financial Management (“GS PFM”) is a registered investment adviser and an affiliate of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., a worldwide, full-service investment banking, broker-dealer, asset management, and financial services organization.

The information contained herein is intended for informational purposes only, is not a recommendation to buy or sell any securities, and should not be considered investment advice. GS PFM does not provide legal, tax, or accounting advice. Clients should obtain their own independent legal, tax, or accounting advice based on their particular circumstances. Please contact your financial adviser with questions about your specific needs and circumstances.

Information and opinions expressed by individuals other than GS PFM employees do not necessarily reflect the view of GS PFM. Information and opinions expressed in this article are as of the date of this material only and subject to change without notice.